Genome: “An organisms complete set of DNA including all of its genes

Whole Genome Sequencing: DNA sequence obtained from the entire organism

What is a genome?

  • “An organisms complete set f DNA including all of its gene. Each genome contains all of the information needed to build and maintain that organism

Comparative Genomics: “Comparative genomics is the direct comparison of the genetic content of an organism against another, and its main aim is to obtain a better biological understanding of many species”

  • Gene number, gene content and gene location
  • length and number of coding regions within genes
  • amount of non coding DNA in each genome, and conserved regions maintained in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic groups of organisms

Metagenomes: The genomes present within an environment sample, microorganisms

Metagenomics: Study of their DNA alone

Differences of prokaryotic and Eukaryotic genome structure

Prok:

-One or two circular chromosomes  -Plasmids

-Minimal amounts of non-coding DNA

-Operons

-Genes have no introns

Euk:

-Multiple of linear chromosomes

-No plasmids

-Extensive amounts of non-coding DNA

No Operons

-Genes have introns

-Mutations rates increases through prokaryotes, RNA viruses etc

Pan Genome– all of the genes and other genetic elements found in any member if the species

Core Genome– the set of genes found in all organisms

Dispensable– genes that may be found in only some strains and can come and without which the organism can still metabolize and divide

 

 

 

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