What is a genome?

-An organisms complete set of DNA including all of its genes. each genome contains all of the information needed to build and maintain that organism

Cells are composed of four types of macromolecules

  • Protein
  • Nucleic Acids
  • Carbohydrates
  • Lipids

Screen Shot 2018-01-18 at 8.28.29 AM

“Cells” by Wikimedia Commons under CC by 2.0


  • Do the work that gives cells form and function
  • Are made of amino acids (monomers)
  • Amino acids are stringing along a polypeptide (peptide bond connects them together with a covalent bond) this is produced from translation
  • Amino acids are built the same way, they have a  carbon in the middle everything is the same except the R group on the molecule

Screen Shot 2018-01-18 at 8.41.54 AM.png“Amino Acid” by Wikimedia Commons under CC by 2.0

Proteins go through 3-4 stages (primary, secondary, tertiary, and sometimes Quaternary)

Primary stage= Translation

23 commonly occurring amino acids (R group is what makes them all different, otherwise they are made up the same) Some redundancy in the genetic code, for one amino acid could have more then one codon Ex. Three nucleotide representing one amino acid

Screen Shot 2018-01-18 at 8.50.47 AM.png

“Codon Table” by Wikimedia Commons under CC by 2.0

Chemistry of the side chains control if its globular or receptor, spider silk or other proteins

Protein primary sequence dictates how folding will occur, which controls the final shape and then the function

So how does the cell know what amino acids to putinto the protein?

  • The sequence of dna in a gene
  • Can have a DNA or RNA codon
  • DNA is shown as one string of nucleotides (building blocks of dna)

DNA= A nucleic acid made up of two stands

  • Made up of nucleotides and bases
  • Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine, and Thymine


Screen Shot 2018-01-18 at 9.25.05 AM.png

“Nucleic Acid” by Wikimedia Commons under CC by 2.0

All made up of a phosphate group, sugar and Nitrogenous Base

DNA and RNA nucleotides are made the same way (the identity of the nitrogenous base gives it its name)

DNA forms a single strand when the nucleotides bond together

Double stranded complementary and antiparellel, Each strand has a 3′ and 5′ end




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