Genotype and Phenotype

Gene=FOX13 Phenotype= Hair (aa) no Hair (Aa)

The Central Dogma= role of transcription and translation


Gene expression links genotype and phenotype

Genotype is the genetic info that it carries in the sequence of its bases

Phenotype is a product of the proteins it produces using that genetic info—genotype controls phenotype

Codon Table:

A-T    T-A  C-G   G-C (Base pairs)

What is a genome?

  • An organisms complete set of DNA including all of its genes. Each genome contains all of the information needed to build and maintain that organism
  • Term coined by Hans Winkler 1920 by combining “gene” and “chromosome”
  • In single cell life forms this means all the DNA in a single cell

Genome Sizes

  • Some relative sizes (expressed as the haploid genome) are complied
  • Measured in “base pairs” (bp) or sometimes kilo base pairs (kbp) but most commonly in mega base pairs (Mbp)
  • 1 000bp= 1 Kbp
  • 1 000 000 bp – 1 Mbp

What is genomics?

The study of genomes including their structure, function, evolution and more

  • Involves a set of tools
  • Is considered a branch of genetics by many, but others disagree as genetics tends to focus on specific genes

What is bioinformatics?

A conceptualizing biology in terms of macro-molecule and then applying informatics techniques derived from math and computer science to understand an organize the information associated with these molecules on a large scale.

Why Study?

  • Understanding how organisms develop and function
  • Medical application
  • Public health

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