-4 Major groups: Chelicerata, Crustacea, Insecta, and Myriapoda

Anatomy of mouth parts- similar among insects and lots of diversity

-How they feed is related to where they live

-Insects have been able to occupy every habitat other then Antarctica and in the ocean

-They are able to fly passive and active use for dispersion

-Wings evolved for more surface area (greater exchange for gases, thermal regulation)

-2 major groups of wings

Primitive Insects– Muscles that are attached to the wing itself, when contracts one nerve impulse one muscle contraction wing goes down relaxation, wing goes back up

  • One contraction, don’t go very fast
  • Direct flight muscles- muscles directly controlling the wing

Advances Insects– indirect flight muscles

  • Muscles are attached to the notum, on thoracic area.
  • Flight muscles contract and pull notum down and pops up and allows for many wing flaps with one nerve impulse
  • Wing beat frequency

Tracheal System

  • Has a respiratory system, tracheal systems
  • Opening in outside of body wall little holes called spiracle
  • Air comes in through the hole and enter in the tracheal system and branch until it distributes O2 through the tissues—> Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide (Respiratory system does not play a direct role)
  • Very efficient







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