Phylum: Platyhelminthes



Group: Turbellaria (cephalized)

Cross Sections 3 Regions/ Image Mag 10x

Longitudinal Muscles


Circular Muscles


Dorsal-Ventral Muscles



Whole Mount/ Image Mag: 4x



Movement: Smooth, gliding motion (movement of the cilia),  Inching movement (referred to as amoeboid movement), bumping into each other. The longitudinally, diagonally, and circularly oriented muscle fibers allow movement and make up the musculature of Turbellarians.

Fasciola Hepatica

Group: Trematoda

Whole Mount/ Dissecting Microscope



Rediae/ Image Mag 10x



Cercariae/ Image Mag 10x



Miracidia/ Image Mag 40x


Metacercariae/ Image Mag



Clonorchis Sinensis

Group: Trematoda

Whole Mount/ Image Mag 4x





Group: Trematoda

Female/ Image Mag 4x


Male/ Image Mag 4x



EnCopula/ Image Mag 4x


Taenia Pisiformis

Group: Cestoda (Cephalized)

Scolex/ Image Mag 4x





4 Regions/ Image Mag 10x

Mature Proglottids/ Image Mag 4x

Dipylidium Caninum

Group: Cestoda

Composite Whole Mount 4 Regions/ Image Mag 4x






Echinococcus Granulosus

Adult/Image Mag 10x





Group: Cestoda


Cestode Cysticercus

Group: Cestoda



Turbellarian Digestive Tracts

Acoels: The pharynx leads to a solid mass of digestive cells which are shapeless. They use phagocytosis as digestion

Rhabdocoels: Has a bulbous pharynx, mouth, sac-like gut, and a simple unbranched intestine. Straight rod-like gut

Triclads: Use their Anterior branch of tribranched gut for digestion, along with pharyngeal cavity and the cylindrical plicate pharynx

Polyclads: Uses only ruffled plicate pharynx and multibranched gut for digestion

Diverticulation– Small outpouchings or sac opening from the large intestine, the colon.



Digestive Tract: No digestive system, uses its body to absorb the already digested nutrients from the intestine. Sticks to the intestine wall and let their bodies stretch out to increase surface area. Uses suckers and hooks.

Parasite Adaptations: Cestodes have a structure called a scolex which consists of number of circular hooks and suckers for attachment to the digestive tract.

Reproduction System: There is the mature proglottid which consists of uterus, sperm duct, vagina, ootype, testies, ovaries and other organs. There is also the gravid proglottid with an expanded uterus.

Life Cycle: Adult tapeworm in human small intestine–> Gravid proglottids passed in feces–> Zygotes develope to onchospheres in enviroment–> eaten by cow–>onchospheres hatch and migrate through the blood to muscle tissue in cow–>forms cysticercus in muscles–>infected beef eaten by human–>scolex everts and attaches in small intestine–>tapeworm matures


Digestive Tract: Has a two-branched gut that extends throughout the body, small pharynx. Some don’t have a digestive system, they absorb pre-digested food from host. They have oral suckers around the mouth

Parasite Adaptations: These organisms have oral suckers, sometimes supplemented by hooks to attach to the vertebral host.

Reproduction System: Reproduce sexually and asexually. Has the yolk gland, ovaries, sperm duct, ootype, and uterus like the cestodes.

Life Cycle: Their life cycle starts as a miracidium hatching from an egg capsule–> developing into the miracidium with an apical gland, penetration gland, germ balls, and cilia–>now a sporocyst with developing redia–>once developed into redia then turns into cercariae. Life cycle throughout humans: humans eat infected fish–>eggs released in the feces–>water –>free swimming miracidia enters snail–>larvae develops in snails body–>cercariae break out of snails body–>free swimming cercariae attach to fish gills—>humans eat the fish


Digestive Tract:Has a pharynx and a sac like digestive cavity. Uses mouth and intestine for digestion. Sucking food into the intestine where phagocytic cells of the gastrodermis complete digestion.

Parasite Adaptations: These organisms are not parasitic.

Reproduction System: Reproduce asexually by fission. There are three reproductive systems: Generalized acoel condition without separate yolk glands, Generalized triclad condition with separate ovaries and yolk glands, and The copulatory structures of a triclad.

Defining Terms

Scolex: The anterior, head-like segment of a tapeworm, having suckers, hooks, or the like, for attachment.

Proglottid (immature,mature): one of the segments or joints of a tapeworm, containing complete reproductive systems, usually both male and female.

Neck: Scolex

Testes: The male reproductive gland

Ovary: The female reproductive gland

Oviduct: A tube through which eggs pass from an ovary

Gonopore: A reproductive aperture or pore

Uterus: A hollow muscular organ of the female reproductive system that is responsible for the development of the embryo and fetus during pregnancy.

Eggs: An animal reproductive body consisting of an ovum together with its nutritive and protective envelopes and having the capacity to develop into a new individual capable of independent existence

Cysticercus:The larval form of any of the Taenia tapeworms

Oncosphere: Tapeworm embryo that has six hooks and is the earliest differentiated stage of a cyclophyllidean tapeworm

Oral Sucker:  A muscular structure for suction on a host or substrate

Ventral Sucker: A second point of attachment to the host

Pharynx: Comes directly after the mouth in the earthworm digestive system, where it acts as a suction pump, drawing in food items

Acetabululm: A specialized sucker for parasitic adaptation in trematodes by which the worms are able to attach on the host.

Yolk Glands: A membranous sac attached to an embryo, formed by cells of the hypoblast adjacent to the embryonic disk






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