Phylum: Cnidaria

Prepared Slides

Aurelia Planulae

Group: Scyohozoa/Image Magnification: 40x

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Aurelia Ephyra

Group: Scyohozoa/ Image Magnification: 10x

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Aurelia Scyphistoma

Group:Scyohozoa/ Image Magnification: 10x

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Aurelia Strobila

Group: Scyohozoa/ Image Magnification: 10x

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Hydra w.m

Group: Hydrozoa/ Image Magnification: 4x

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Hydra Budding

Group: Hydrozoa/ Image Magnification 40x

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See Above Labeled Diagram

Hydra Nematocysts

Group: Hydrozoa/ Image Magnification 10x

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Obelia w.m

Group: Hydrozoa/ Image Magnification: 10x

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Obelia Medusa

Group: Hydrozoa/ Image Magnification:10x

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Live Specimens

Freshwater Hydra

Group: Hydrozoa/ Image Magnification: 40x

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Sea Anemone

Group: Anthozoa/ Images Under a Dissecting Microscope

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Gorgonians

Group: Anthozoa/ Image Magnification: 10x

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Hard Corals

Group:  Anthozoa/ Dissecting Microscope

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Hydroids

Group: Hydrozoa/ Dissecting Microscope

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Preserved Organisms

Metridium

Group: Anthozoa

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Longitudinal Dissection Cut

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Aurelia

Group: Scyphozoan

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Gononemius

Group: Hydrozoan

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Obelia Cassiopeia

??

Phylum: Ctenophora

Comb Jelly

Group: Radiata

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Structural Differences between Hydroid and Anthozoan Polyps

Hydroid:

  • mouth is simple opening
  • Simple GV Cavity
  • Nematocysts absent in gastrodermis

Anthozoa:

  • Mouth opens into pharynx that is ciliated
  • Separate GV cavity
  • Nematocysts present in gastrodermis

 

Structural Differences between Hydrozoan and Scyphozoan Medusae

Hydrozoa:

  • Small, Velum Present
  • Simple bell margin, manubrium, and canals
  • Lacking nematocysts, arise by budding
  • Gonads arise epidermally

Scyphozoan:

  • Large, Velum Absent
  • Notched Bell Margin
  • Large mouth lobes
  • Manubrium with nematocysts, arise via strobilation
  • Branched Radial Canals
  • Gonads arise gastrodermally

Obelia Life Cycle:

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“Obelia Structure” by McGraw-Hill under CC by 2.0

Aurelia Life Cycle:

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“Cnidarians” by Study Blue under CC by 2.0

Defining Terms

Polyp– Sessile with upright tentacles around the mouth. Asexual stage. Corals, hydra, and sea anemones exist int he polyp form as adults

Medusae– Free swimming bell shaped organisms with tentacles that hang at the mouth with a layer of mesoglea for support. Sexual stage. Jellys and Man-Of-War are medusae in adult stage

Mouth: Get passed food through the cilia

Gastrovascular Cavity– Primary “Organ” of digestion and circulation. Food exits and enters through the same orifice

Tentacle– Pull food into GV Cavity.

Cnidocyte– An explosive cell containing a secretory organelle. Used for prey capture and a defense mechanism

Cnidae– A capsule containing a coiled tubule and venom. They consist of nematocysts and spirocysts.

Operculum– A “lid” that opens and closes that exposes the organism to the outside world

Cnidocil– A hairlike sensory process projecting from the surface of a cnidoblast, believed to trigger the discharge of the nematocyst.

 Discharged- regarding nematocysts, when coil springs and venom relseased attacking pray

Undischarged- regarding nematocysts, when the cap is closed and not attacking pray

Manubrium– A stalk-like structure hanging down from the center surrounded by oral arms, which connects with the mouth/anus at the base of the bell and emties into the GV Cavity

Radial Canals-Form part of the water vascular system, extending through each tentacle

Bell-

Oral Arms-Located around the mouth and hold the stinging cells of Jellys. Can release sperm.

Gastric PouchFour semicircular pouches that open from the sides of the stomach and are the sites of extracellular digestion

Gonad-Where gametes differentiate

Gastric Filament A filament lined with nematocysts that kill living prey entering the stomach of a jellyfish.

Zooanthellae– Single-celled dinoflagellates that are able to live in symbiosis with marine invertebrates such as corals, jellyfish, and sea anemones

Pinnate– Having a feather appearance

Planula Larvae– A free-swimming, flattened, ciliated, bilaterally symmetric larval form of various cnidarian species

Scyphistomawhen the planula larva escapes from the parent and attaches to a substratum, it develops into tiny polyps

Strobila/Strobilization– When the polyps rip off. When they form Medusae

Ephyra-A miniature medusa produced by asexual bedding of a scyphistoma, mature into sexual medusae

Hydromedusae– A subclass within the Class Hydrozoa. Has a globular umbrella, or bell. They possess long hollow tentacles for capturing prey

Velum– A covering or partition of thin membranous tissue on the rim around the margin of the bell of cnidarian

Stolon-Plant stems that are capable of budding to produce clones of the parent plant, thereby allowing it to colonize an area of ground with its young

Hydranth– The terminal part of a hydroid polyp that bears the mouth and tentacles and contains the stomach region

Perisarc– Outer covering on an Obelia

Hydratheca– The cup-like part of the perisarc of colonial COELENTERATES which surrounds and protects the polyp

Thecate– The chitinous cup which protects the hydranths of certain hydroids. The more or less cuplike calicle of a coral.

Athecate- Lacking a theca

Zooids– A single organism living in a colony of organisms

Gastrozooid– A zooid provided with a mouth and digestive organs

Gonozooid– A sexual zooid or medusa bud of a hydroid

Dactylozooid– A tentacular mouthless zooid in certain hydrozoans that performs tactile and protective functions for the colony

Siphonoglyph– A ciliated groove at one or both ends of the mouth of sea anemones and some coral. It is used to create currents of water into the pharynx

Pharynx– An in-folding of the body wall,  lined by the epidermis Runs for about one third the length of the body before opening into the gastrovascular cavity that occupies the remainder of the body.

Mesenteries– It forms complete or incomplete partitions of the body cavity2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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