Phylum Porifera

About 8,000 species mostly marine

Features:

  • No organ system
  • Most are asymmetrical
  • Highly specialized cells
  • Many are called “totipotent
  • Cells can be dissociated separated and they will reaggregate
  • Cell mediated immunity

Screen Shot 2017-09-18 at 10.34.27 AM.png

Sea Sponge by Wikimedia Commons under CC by 2.0

Sponge body plan developed to filter water

choanocyte a flagellated cell with a collar of protoplasm at the base of the flagellum, numbers of which line the internal chambers of sponges.

Forms a food vacuole and pass it along to amoebocytes for digestion

Increase surface area—->increases food consumption

Spicules

Made up of CaCO3 (Calcium Carbonate) or Silica

Porifera Diversity

  • Class Calcarea

Screen Shot 2017-09-18 at 10.53.41 AM.png

“Titanopsis Calcarea”  by Wikimedia Commons under CC by 2.0

  • Class Demospongiae

Screen Shot 2017-09-18 at 10.57.11 AM.png

“Reef” by Wikimedia Commons under CC by 2.0

  • Class Hexactinellida

Screen Shot 2017-09-18 at 10.59.32 AM.png

“Glass Sponge by Flickr under CC by 2.0

Sponge Reproduction

Asexual: buds breaking off, gemmules (freshwater)

Sexual: Internal fertilization

Physical and chemical defenses:

  • Manufacture a broad spectrum of biotoxins (allelochemicals)
  • Use chemical warfare to compete for space with other benthic organisms
  • Some isolated for their potential pharmaceutical use as antibiotic, anti-tumor

Boring sponges:

 

 

 

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