7 major groups of Eukarya:

  • Amoebozoa
  • Opisthokonta
  • Excavata
  • Plantae
  • Rhizaria
  • Aveolata
  • Stramenopila

Contractile Vacuoles expel water from the cell

Swimming via flagella and swimming via cilia


Protist Patterns of Nutrition

-Autotrophic (algae plant like)

-Heterotrophic: ingestors and absorbers

-Mixotrophic: Nutritionally flexible organisms can be both photosynthetic and heterotrophic


  • Lack cell walls and take in food by engulfing it
  • Move via amoeboid motion and produce large, lobe like pseudopodia
  • Amoebae are abundant in freshwater habitats and in wet soils
  • Major subgroups in the lineage are lobose amoebae, cellular slime molds, and plasmodial slime molds

Opisthokonta: Choanoflagellates

Excavata: parabasalids, Diplomonads, and Euglenids

  • Includes free-living mutualistic and parasitic species
  • singled celled
  • swim using flagella

Alveolata: Ciliates

  • Ciliates were names for the cilia that cover them and that they use for locomotion
  • Diverse group- all of the known 12,00 ciliate species live in freshwater habitats environments and wet soils
  • large complex cells

Zooanthellae are important dinoflagellates that are endosymbiotic in corals and other cnidarians as well as other organisms


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