-Unicellular, includes protozoa


-Multicellular, no “true” tissue: parazoa (sponges)

True tissue: Eumetazoa

  1. Diploblastic (mostly radially symmetric)
  2. Triploblasic (mostly bilaterally symmetric)



-Coelomate (1.Protostomes 2.Deuterostomes)


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Pleisomorphic (Primitive condition, ancestral state)

Apomorphic (derived condition, advanced character state)

Syanpomorphy (shared derived character)

In Cladistics, all members of a group (clade) should be monophyletic


  • All members of a taxonmic group are derived from a single ancestral form
  • the group that shares a common ancestor but does not contain all the descendants


  • A group containing members that don’t share a common ancestor


  • A group containing members that dont share a common ancestor


-lacks absolute time axis, cant tell what year things happened

-cant tell speciation events

-is a HYPOTHESIS, ideas amount evolutionary history change

-A PHYLOGENY DOES have a time axis


-smallest # of evolutionary transformations

-least complex way of explaining relationships

-not a lot of losses and re-gaining characteristics


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