Marisa Benjamin                                                                                           09/05/17

Research Project Outline


Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: Transfemoral Approach

I will be discussing the topic of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement, specifically using the Edwards SAPIEN3 transcatheter valve. The transfemoral approach (through the femoral artery) is used for patients that are diagnosed with aortic stenosis (narrowing of the aortic valve) and are moderate to severe risk of surgical mortality. I will be going more in depth of stenosis and the causes and diagnosis. This is a less invasive approach compared to open-heart surgery, which Is the best option for patients who are fragile and could have surgical complications during and post surgery. The SAPIEN 3 valve is the latest generation and is made from bovine pericardial tissue found in a cow’s heart. The valve is equipped with cobalt chromium to ensure it’s durability and strength, and an outer sealing skirt to eliminate leakage around the valve. More about the structure and how it works as a valve will be explained. I will be including case studies of the valve and observational studies that were conducted using high-risk participants. Also included will be the process of inserting this valve along with complications that arise. Using my grandmother as one of the case studies, I will go in depth on what made her qualify to be the first participant in the study.

Paper Structure:

  • Intro
  • Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (what is actually is, why you need it, who qualifies)
  • The Edwards Sapien Valve (The actual valve that is used in the procedure, why it is different from other, how it is put in)
  • Case Studies
  • Conclusion


Major Points- Not entirely sure yet


Aortic Stenosis – Narrowing (stenosis) of the aortic valve

Transfemoral– Passing through or preformed by the way of the femoral artery

Transcatheter- performed through the lumen of a catheter.



  • Kolandaivelu, Kumaran. “Score: N = 1/Tricuspid Regurgitation = 0.” Science Translational Medicine. American Association for the Advancement of Science, 01 Apr. 2015. Web.
  • Panaich, Sidakpal S., and Mackram F. Eleid. “Tricuspid Valve-in-valve Implantation for failing Bioprosthetic Valves: An Evolving Standard of Care.” Annals of Translational Medicine. AME Publishing Company, Oct. 2016. Web.
  • Sinning, Jan-Malte, Nikos Werner, Georg Nickenig, and Eberhard Grube. “Next-Generation Transcatheter Heart Valves: Current Trials in Europe and the USA.” Methodist DeBakey Cardiovascular Journal. The Methodist Hospital, Houston, Texas, 2012. Web.
  • Thourani, Vinod H., Susheel Kodali, and Raj R. Makkar. “Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement versus Surgical Valve Replacement in Intermediate-risk Patients: A Propensity Score Analysis.” Edwards. The Lancet, 03 Apr. 2016. Web.
  • Wilson, and Osten, MD. “Transcatheter Pulmonary Valve Replacement With the Edwards Sapien System.” American College of Cardiology. N.p., 2017. Web.



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